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Northern, Southern and Western Europe


Spain ranks 16 out of 162 countries in the Gender Inequality Index, where a high rank equals high equality. Women should always be considered as a particularly vulnerable group though.


Spain has a Workplace Index score of 2.3, a Marketplace Index score of 3.1 and a Community and Environment Index score of 1.4 in the Children’s Rights and Business Atlas, where countries receive scores between 0 and 10. A score closer to 0 reflects a need for basic children’s rights due diligence, while a higher score reflects a need for enhanced or heightened due diligence. Children should always be considered as a particularly vulnerable group though. 

Persons with Disabilities

Due to differences in data collection and definitions it is difficult to compare countries on disability prevalence rates. Persons with disabilities should always be considered as a particularly vulnerable group though.

Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

According to the World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, the main minority groups in Spain are Catalan speakers, Galician speakers and Basques. While the Spanish government does not record statistics on the ethnic and racial background of its population, it does record the foreign population, which amount to about 10 %. The largest national migrant populations are from Morocco, Romania, the UK, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Bulgaria, Germany and Ukraine. Spain also has the largest Roma population in Western Europe, as well as a very small Jewish community. After Spain joined the European Union in 1985, industry, agriculture, and services developed rapidly. Immigration became an increasingly important issue from the 1990s. Many of Spain’s legal foreign residents are retired citizens from other EU countries, but they have been overtaken in numbers by Latin Americans, and growing numbers from Morocco and Eastern Europe, especially Romania, some of whom are Roma.

Migrant Workers​

According to the ILO Global Estimates on International Migrant Workers, migrant workers as a proportion of all workers is 18.4 % in the subregion Northern, Southern and Western Europe.

Persons in Armed Conflict

Spain ranks 142 out of 179 countries in the Fragile States Index, where a high rank equals high fragility. For monthly crisis updates, check out CrisisWatch

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